(ruled 961 - October 1, 976) Spain
Successor of Abd-al-Rahman III (also gay), he openly kept male harems. Contrary to alcohol use, he destroyed all the wines in Cordoba territory. Caliph Al-Hakem II in year 965 built the largest castle in Europe (446 m long, 89 m wide and 1,200 m in perimeter) at Gormaz (close to the road that goes from Aranda de Duero to Medinaceli). His rule assured a long period of peace to Andalusia, and the Muslim library reached up to 400,000 volumes. By mid tenth century most of existing Greek and Hellenic works were translated into Arabic. He enlarged and beautifully decorated Cordoba's Mosque.