(1483 - December 26, 1530) India
First Mogul Emperor - Writer
Babur, a descendant of Timur, real name Zahir ud-Din Muhammad, founder of the Mughal (or Mogul or Mongol) dynasty of India and its first emperor (1526-1530). His name is also spelled Babar and Baber.
Babur was 12 years old when he succeeded his father as sovereign of Fergana (now in Uzbekistan). He established himself at Kabul in 1504, having lost Fergana the year before. In 1526 he invaded India and met the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, in the Battle of Panìpat. Although Lodi commanded a much larger army, Babur won the battle and captured Agra and Delhi. During the next four years he conquered most of northern India and established his capital at Agra.
Babur was a poet; his memoirs Tuzuk-e-Baburi, also known as Babur Namah, written in Turkish, personally transcribed by his son Humayun, and afterwards translated into Persian during the reign of Akbar. It is considered among the most enthralling and romantic literary works of all times. They reveal that Babur was a lover of nature and a man of refined taste. They were translated into Persian in the times of Akbar in 1590, into English in 1826 and into French in 1871. This major work is very informative also about his sexual preferences.
Babur did not live long to rule his Kingdom. Towards the end of Babur's life, his eldest son Humayun fell seriously ill. It is said that in a religious ceremony, he transferred his son's illness to himself and sacrificed himself in order to save Humayun. As Humayun recovered, the former became worse and after two or three months Babur died at Agra. Babur was buried at Kabul, in accordance with his own wishes.