(247 - 182 BC) Tunisia
Carthaginian military leader
General from 221 BC, son of Hamilcar Barca. His siege of Saguntum (modern Sagunto, near Valencia, Spain) precipitated the 2nd Punic War. Following a brilliant campaign in Italy (after crossing the Alps in 218 BC with 57 elephants!), Hannibal was the victor at Trasimene river (217 BC) and Cannae (216 BC), but failed to take Rome.
In 203 BC he returned to Carthage to meet a Roman invasion, but was defeated at Zama (202 BC), and was exiled in 196 BC at Rome's insistence. He fled first to Syria, then to Bythinia (on the Black Sea), Rome always seeking his extradition, and poisoned himself rather than fall into their hands.