(1469 - 1527) Italy
His name is now synonymous with cunning and cynical statecraft. Born in Florence he became second chancellor to the republic (1498-1512). On the accession to power of the Medici in 1512, he was arrested and imprisoned on a charge of cospiracy, but in 1513 released to exile in the country.
He completed his Il principe (The Prince, 1513), a guide for the future prince of a unified Italian state, showing ways in which rulers can advance the interests of their states (and themselves) though an often amoral and opportunist manipulation of other people.
The theories expressed in Il principe and in his Discorsi (Discourses, 1531), influenced political science, up to our day, in all the nations of the world... He also wrote the comedies La Mandragola (The Mandrake, 1534), and Clizia. According to documents he seems to have been bisexual.