(1238 - 3 April 1325) India
(1253 - 6 October 1325) India
Sufi poet, musician
Muhammad Nizamuddin Auliya sometimes spelled Awliya;, also known as Hazrat Nizamuddin, was a Sufi saint of the Chishti Order and arguably one of the most famous Sufis on the Indian Subcontinent. He was born in Badayun, Uttar Pradesh (east of Delhi). At the age of five, after the death of his father, he came to Delhi with his mother, Bibi Zulekha.
At the age of twenty, Nizamuddin went to Ajodhan (the present Pakpattan Sharif in Pakistan) and became a disciple of the Sufi saint Fariduddin Ganjshakar, commonly known as Baba Farid. Nizamuddin did not take up residence in Ajodhan but continued with his theological studies in Delhi while simultaneously starting the Sufi devotional practices and the prescribed litanies. He visited Ajodhan each year to spend the month of Ramadan in the presence of Baba Farid. It was on his third visit to Ajodhan that Baba Farid made him his successor. Shortly after that, when Nizamuddin returned to Delhi, he received news that Baba Farid had died.
Nizamuddin lived at various places in Delhi, before finally settling down in Ghiyaspur, a neighbourhood in Delhi undisturbed by the noise and hustle of city life. He built his Khanqah here, a place where people from all walks of life were fed, where he imparted spiritual education to others and he had his own quarters.
Many of his disciples achieved spiritual height, including Amir Khusrau, noted scholar/musician, and the royal poet of the Delhi Sultanate.
He died on the morning of 3 April 1325. His shrine, the Nizamuddin Dargah, is located in Delhi. and the present structure was built in 1562. The shrine is visited by people of all faiths, through the year, though it becomes a place for special congregation during the death anniversaries, or Urs, of Nizamuddin Auliya and Amir Khusrau, who is also buried at the Nizamuddin Dargah.
The legend of Amir Khusrau and Nizamuddin Aulia is something special in the history of Indian Sufism. Amir Khusrau, according to the popular belief, was a steadfast Sufi and the most favourite disciple of Nizamuddin Aulia. However, the contemporary scholars of History and Persian language know him as a court poet who successfully managed to appease more than seven rulers of Delhi Sultanate with his charming poetry that can still be considered some of the best literature produced in the entire Persian world, apart from being a mine of source-material for historians.
Hazrat Amir Khusrau (Rahmatullahi Alaihi), the legendary poet, composer, inventor, linguist, historian and scholar, one of the intellectual giants of Indian history, was Nizamuddin Aulia's most loved and devoted mureed (= disciple). As an Amir (= noble) in the court, Khusrau may have indulged in all sorts of material pursuits, but only in his pir's Khaneqah he found the real love and an atmosphere for the evolution of his creative and spiritual faculties.
Amir Khusrau was a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya and used to compose verses in the honour of his beloved - Nizamuddin Auliya. In his poetry there is sexual innuendo towards his murshid (master):
Khusrau has given himself to Nizam
You made me your bride when our eyes met
Khusrau who had an Indo-Turkish parentage was introduced to Khwaja Nizamuddin at an early age. There are endless anecdotes - in oral tradition as well as documented history - as to how passionately the two loved each other, right from their first meeting till the moment of their death.
Nizamuddin Aulia who was visited in his monastery by thousands of people every day, used to say that he often gets fed up with every one including sometimes himself - but with Khusrau, Never ! He also wished if his religion allowed, he would have Khusrau and himself buried in the same grave after their death.
The death of the two men was also an unusual event which highlighted that Khusrau's love and respect for Hazrat had reached its Zenith. When Nizamuddin Aulia breathed his last, Khusrau was away at Lakhnawati in Bengal on Mohammad Tughlaq's royal mission. When he heard the sad news, he couldn't control himself, and rushed back to Delhi.
On seeing his pir's grave, he blackened his face and rolled over in dust in utter grief, tearing his garments, reciting the following Hindi doha impromptu:
Gori sovay sej par,
Mukh par daray kes;
Chal Khusrau ghar aapnay,
saanjh bhaee chahu des.
The fair Spouse rests on a bed of roses,|
The face covered with a lock of hair;
Let us oh Khusrau, return home now,
The dark dusk settles in four corners of the world.
After this, it is said, Khusrau's condition started deteriorating and within exactly 6 months of his master's death, he too expired, or rather his love met with the ultimate consummation on Friday 29th Ziq'ad 725AH (6 November 1325). This incident and the above couplet is remembered as the highest point in Khusrau's relationship with Nizamuddin and also probably the reason for their becoming a combined legend.
Ab'ul Hasan Yamin ud-Din Khusrau (1253 - 1325), also known as Amir Khusrow (The Noble Khusrau), or simply Kusro, was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar from the Indian subcontinent. He was a mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi. He wrote poetry primarily in Persian, but also in Hindavi.
Khusrau is regarded as the "father of qawwali" (a devotional music form of the Sufis in the Indian subcontinent), and introduced the ghazal style of song into India, both of which still exist widely in India and Pakistan. Khusrau was an expert in many styles of Persian poetry which were developed in medieval Persia. He used 11 metrical schemes with 35 distinct divisions. He wrote in many verse forms including ghazal, masnavi, qata, rubai, do-baiti and tarkib-band. His contribution to the development of the ghazal was significant.
Amir Khusrau was born in Patiyali in the Delhi Sultanate (in modern day Uttar Pradesh, India) in 1253. His father, Amir Saif ud-Din Mahmud, was a Turkic officer and a member of the Lachin tribe of Transoxania. During Genghis Khan's invasion of Central Asia, Amir Saif ud-Din migrated from his hometown of Kesh, near Samarkand, to Balkh, where he was the chieftain of the Hazara. Shams ud-Din Iltutmish, the Sultan of Delhi at the time, welcomed them to the Delhi Sultanate.
Amir Saif ud-Din married Bibi Daulatnaz, the daughter of Rawat Arz, who was the famous war minister of Ghiyas ud-Din Balban, the ninth Sultan of Delhi. Daulatnaz's family belonged to the Rajput tribes of modern day Uttar Pradesh. They had four children: three sons (one of whom was Khusrau) and a daughter. Amir Saif ud-Din Mahmud died in 1260.
Khusrau was an intelligent child. He started learning and writing poetry at the age of eight. After the death of his father in 1260, his mother brought him up and traveled with him to Delhi to his maternal grandfather's house.When Khusrau was 20 years old, his grandfather, who was reportedly 113 years old, died.
After Khusrau's grandfather's death, Khusrau joined the army of Malik Chajju, a nephew of the reigning Sultan. This brought his poetry to the attention of the Assembly of the Royal Court where he was honored. Khusrau also participated as a soldier in battles with invading Mongols in which he was taken prisoner, but later escaped.
A Turk named Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji then marched on Delhi, killed the reigning Sultan and became Sultan, at his place thus ending the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and starting the Khilji dynasty.
Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji appreciated poetry and invited many poets to his court. Khusrau was honoured and respected in his court and was given the title "Amir" (Noble). Court life made Khusrau focus more on his literary works. Khusrau's ghazals which he composed in quick succession were set to music and were sung by singing girls every night before the Sultan.
In 1310 Khusrau became close to a Sufi saint of the Chishti Order, Nizamuddin Auliya.
After Ala ud-Din Khilji's death in 1316, his son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khilji became the Sultan of Delhi. Khusrau wrote a masnavi on Mubarak Shah Khilji called Nuh Sipihr (Nine Skies), which described the events of Mubarak Shah Khilji's reign. In 1319 he wrote Afzal ul-Fawaid (Greatest of Blessings), a work of prose that contained the teachings of Nizamuddin Auliya.
In 1320 Mubarak Shah Khilji was killed by Khusro Khan, who thus ended the Khilji dynasty and briefly became Sultan of Delhi. Within the same year, Khusro Khan was captured and beheaded by Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, who became Sultan and thus began the Tughlaq dynasty.
Khusrau died in October 1325, six months after the death of Nizamuddin Auliya. Khusrau's tomb is next to that of his spiritual master in the Nizamuddin Dargah in Delhi. Nihayat ul-Kamaal (The Zenith of Perfection) was compiled probably a few weeks before his death.
Sources : https://archive.org/ - https://back2ghazal.wordpress.com/ - https://innlivenetwork.wordpress.com/ - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia