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Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha ibn Ismail
ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad 'Ali
(April 30, 1852 - January 7, 1892) Egypt

Tawfiq Pasha

Khedive

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Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha (also spelled Mohammed Tewfik) was born in El Cairo; he was the hereditary Khedive of Egypt from 1879-1892, that is during the first phase of the British occupation His reputation as a lover of boys did not bother the British colonial powers, who favored Tawfiq even though his own people did not support him.

The eldest son of Khedive Isma'il, Tawfiq was distinguished from other members of his family by having engaged in study in Egypt rather than in Europe. He subsequently assumed a variety of administrative positions, including the head of the Privy Council. Tawfik, only 27 years old, was summoned by the Ottoman sultan to succeed his father, he adopted a cooperative, if passive, attitude toward Anglo-French control of Egyptian state finances.

Caught immediately between the Anglo-French demands for financial conservatism and stability and the growing Egyptian nationalist movement insisting on the reduction of foreign influence in Egypt, Tawfik never secured real power. He was young, inexperienced, and indecisive; the British and French financial supervisors, in effect, ruled Egypt.

He served as the prime minister of Egypt between May 1920 and 1921, again from 1922 until 1923, and finally between 1934 and 1936. He was also Minister of the Interior under Yusuf Wahba Pasha from November 1919 to May 1920. Tawfik Pasha took a special interest in irrigation, education, and justice. He showed little desire to keep up the unapproachable state of an Oriental ruler, and in many ways his manners were less Oriental than European. He was a strong advocate of monogamy.

He was appointed Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) by George V of the United Kingdom in December 1920. He was succeeded upon his death in Hulwan, by his son Abbas Hilmi.

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