|8 - Memorials of the Gay Holocaust
Here we collect pictures of Gay Holocaust Memorials. It you have the missing data or pictures, or sites to be added, please, send us an e-mail. Thank you. Matt & Andrej Koymasky
|1984 - Mauthausen|
||Since 1984, memorials to homosexual victims of the Nazi regime have appeared in various cities and memorial sites at former concentration camps. Former concentration camp Mauthausen got the first monument acknowledging gay prisoners in 1984. This was possible because the control of the site was with the Ministry of Interior, not the various survivor groups, which would have objected.|
|translation: "Put to death - 'put to silence' - for the homosexual victims of National Socialism"
Photo credits: HOSI Linz - that's the GLBT organisation of the county of Oberösterreich
|1985 - Dachau|
|The survivor groups prevented a similar plaque from being mounted in Dachau for ten years. In 1985, on the 40th anniversary of the liberation of the camp, gay and lesbian activists staged a demonstration - angering the organizers, but supported by the public. By now, they have gotten used to the gay participation in these yearly commemorative events, and the gay and lesbian ceremonies are announced in the official programme.
|1985 - Neuengamme|
|Memorial to homosexual victims at Neuengamme concentration camp. One hundred homosexuals were imprisioned at Neuengamme. At least 33 of these men lost their lives. The exact count is probably much higher.|
Photo credits: Florida Center for Instructional Technology
|1987 - Amsterdam|
|"Homomonument," Westermarkt, Amsterdam.
The Homomonument by Karin Daan in Amsterdam is a memorial to homosexual victims of the Holocaust. Three triangles define a large triangle. A triangle is raised up from the ground. A second triangle is level with the ground. And a third triangle is at a lower level jutting out into the adjacent canal.
Photo credit: Florida Center for Instructional Technology
This triangle bears a line from a poem by Jacob Israel de Haan:
"NAAR VRIENDSCHAP ZULK EEN MATELOOS VERLANGEN."
(Such a boundless longing for friendship.)
Photo credit: Florida Center for Instructional Technology
|1989 - Berlin|
|Commemorative Memorial plaque at Nollendorfplatz, Berlin-Schöneberg, on the wall of the Underground Station, for the first time in a public place a monument to Berlin's homosexual victims of the Nazis is set up.|
Photo credits: Florida Center for Instructional Technology
Ewald Kentgens, Berlin
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum #384
This bronze plaque reads:
"The pink triangle was the sign by which homosexuals were defamatorily marked in concentration camps by the National Socialists.
As from January 1933 almost all homosexual pubs around Nollendorfplatz were
closed down by the Nazis or they were abused by razzias to compile "Rosa
Listen" (= pink lists, i.e. indexes of homosexuals)."
|1990 - Italy - Bologna|
|Pink Triangle Memorial
In memory of all the homosexual victims of Nazi-Fascism was set by the Municipality in the Gradens of Villa Cassarini.
|Homosexual Memorial at Buchenwald|
Photo credits: Jerry Maynard - San Francisco, California
|1992 - Sachsenhausen|
|Homosexual Memorial at Sachsenhausen and Museum, Oranienburg.|
Photo credits: Florida Center for Instructional Technology
Wall memorial. "Deathblow, deadly silence of the homosexual victims of National Socialism."
|1993 - Den Haag|
|Homosexual Memorial at Den Haag.
Metallic sculpture in Koninginnegracht - Dr. Aletta Jacobsweg.
|1994 - Frankfurt am Main|
|Homosexual Memorial. "Angel," Platz Schäfergasse/Alte Gasse, Frankfurt.|
|Ever since 1994, the Monument to the Persecution of Homosexuals in Frankfurt/Main stands in remembrance of the homosexual men and women who were persecuted by the Nazis. On the initiative of six gay men, the very first monument of its kind in Germany was established and publicly inaugurated on December 11, 1994 in the form of a ceremonial hour held in the city's Paulskirche. On the 10th anniversary of its inauguration, the "Initiative Mahnmal Homosexuellenverfolgung" has developed a comprehensive Web portal, and the monument went online to mark the occasion.
Now, at the www.frankfurter-engel.de (in German) site there is a wealth of detailed material available on the monument itself, its political background and its history. The comprehensive range of information offerings also includes an overview of the Nazi persecution of homosexuals and specific persecution campaigns against them in Frankfurt, material on the history of the monuments location, as well as an extensive bibliography. A Web log encourages visitors to exchange opinions, information, and comments, and provides a strong platform for communication.
Between 1990 and 1994, the Initiative worked to gain municipal/political approval for the creation of the monument and to plan the realization of the design put forward by Rosemarie Trockel. The monument finally saw the light of day with the kind support of the City of Frankfurt/Main, the Hessen Cultural Foundation and the Hannchen-Mehrzweck-Stiftung, as well as with donations from countless citizens from throughout Germany.
The core of the monument is Rosemarie Trockel's "injured" angel. As a cast of a 19th-century bronze sculpture the angel cites history; time has left its mark on it. Only at second glance does the viewer discern what Trockel herself has changed: the head was broken off, turned to one side and then placed back on so that a noticeable scar remains. As an androgynous being, the injured angel stands as a symbol for "being different", and likewise as a symbol of the violence which homosexuals faced during the Third Reich. A circle consisting of four benches, enclosed by four hedges of box trees, creates a sense of intimacy and tranquility, enabling viewers to contemplate the statue and remember the past.
Located in the heart of Frankfurt's downtown and in the midst of the city's gay/lesbian sub-culture, the Monument to the Persecution of Homosexuals on what is now Klaus Mann Platz is a public symbol against the past being forgotten. As a "village square" it is also a preferred meeting point for the local community and an expression of the self-confidence with which gays and lesbians live in society today.
|1995 - Cologne|
|Memorial on the bank of the Rhine River at the Wallraf-Richarts-Museum, Köln, near the Hohenzollernbrücke. In June 1995, the memorial was dedicated in a ceremony.
It is made of two pink granite pylons. The text reads:
"The gay and lesbian victims of national socialism
|1999 - Anchorage, Alaska|
|There is a gay memorial monument in the US. It is located in the Municipal Cemetery (corner of E. 6th Avenue & Fairbanks Street) in Anchorage, Alaska, and was dedicated on May 23, 1999. The monument is made of gray granite with a pink granite triangle inset into the upper-left corner. The inscription reads: "Your Spirit Lives on, in Love, Peace and Pride".|
|May 23, 1999 - San Francisco|
Pink Triangle Park and Memorial
First permanent, free-standing memorial in America to the thousands of gay, lesbian, bisexual & transgendered people sent to Nazi death-camps in World War II. 15 triangular granite columns, one for every 1,000 gays, lesbians, bisexual and transgender people estimated to have been killed during the Holocaust, stand at the tip of a pink-rock-filled triangular shaped park.
|2000 - Italy - Roma|
Pink Triangle Monument, near Metro Piramide
5 metallic figures each representing a different "kind" of prisoner. The first from left has at the back a pink triangle. The monument was raised at the place where the Nazis' prisoners were gathered to be sent to the German Concentration Camps.
|2001 - USA - Palm Spring - Florida|
The first monument specifically dedicated to the memory of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered veterans was dedicated on Memorial Day, 27 May, 2001, through the cooperative efforts of AMVETS Post 66 & Palm Springs Gay Veterans.
|2001 - Sydney, Australia|
|Gay & Lesbian Holocaust Memorial - Green Park.
The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Holocaust Memorial Project was founded by a group of community activists. Over the years they raised funds and decided, with South Sydney City Council, on the site at Green Park in Darlinghurst, in Sydney, Australia. Darlinghurst is considered the heart of Sydney's gay and lesbian population. Green Park is adjacent to the Sydney Jewish Museum, which ensures that the memorial retains its historic meaning.
The $100,000 structure is the brainchild of child Holocaust survivor Dr Kitty Fischer, who says she owes her life to a homosexual inmate at the Auschwitz death camp who brought jacket potatoes to her and her younger sister. The memorial was constructed over a period of months in 2000. Its dedication ceremony occurred on Tuesday, 27 February 2001, when the memorial was handed over to the custodianship of the Sydney Pride Centre.
Photo credit: Ken Lovett
|The memorial comprises a pink triangle bearing an image of prisoners at Sachenhausen concentration camp and a black triangle representing victimised lesbians.
But Jewish academics have criticised the memorial for equating the Holocaust with homosexual persecution. Professor Colin Tatz: "Homosexuals certainly were not the target of annihilation in the manner that Jews were... People have to be careful of jumping on the coat-tails of one group's suffering and appropriating it for their own."
Sydney University adjunct professor Konrad Kwiet said he supported a memorial but had reservations about drawing too strong a parallel between the Holocaust - which specifically refers to the attempted extermination of the Jewish people - and the persecution of homosexuals, which did not amount to genocide.
Gay Jewish lawyer Robert Green disagreed, saying it was gratifying to see a memorial which showed no-one had a monopoly on suffering. "Kitty Fischer was in Auschwitz with a gay man who was not Jewish, so different policies led to the same end."
|January 27, 2005 - Italy - Trieste - Risiera San Sabba|
|Pink Triangle Memorial
The "Risiera San Sabba" was the Italian Concentration Camp.
|2005 - Laxton, Nottinghamshire, UK|
|The picture shows the memorial plaque presentation at the Holocaust Centre, Laxton, Nottinghamshire, UK. September 22nd 2005
|2005 - Uruguay - Montevideo|
|Pink Triangle Memorial
The pylon gives the name to the Square "Plaza de la Diversidad Sexual"
Uruguay has unveiled what gay activists say is the first monument in Latin America honoring sexual diversity.
The rose-colored block of granite shaped in the form of a triangle went up this week in the Uruguayan capital of Montevideo.
Set atop a concrete column, the monument is inscribed with the words: The insrcription is: HONRAR LA DIVERSIDAD ES HONRAR LA VIDA. MONTEVIDEO POR EL RESPETO A TODO GÉNERO, IDENTIDAD Y ORIENTACIN SEXUAL. AÑO 2005
"Honoring Diversity is Honoring Life. Montevideo for the respect of all sexual genders, identity and orientations. Year 2005."
|2007 - Vienna - Der Rosa Platz|
|Der Rosa Platz (The Pink Place) will consist in a shallow basin full of water at Morzinplatz with a surface of 400 m2. The water is pink. The letters "QUE(E)R" look out of the basin as a relief. They allow crossing the basin.
"QUE(E)R" stands for the homosexuals and transgenders persecuted and murdered in the past. "QUE(E)R" is an independent "platform" and a basis for the future of those who (sexually) think in a different way. "QUE(E)R" is an internationally valid name for gays, lesbians, intersexuals and transgenders, i. e. for those who break the rules of hetero-normativity. "Unconventional thinker" ("Querdenker" in German), "to be crosswise" ("quer sein"), "to oppose to something" ("sich querlegen") are further associations which the term "QUE(E)R" provokes. "QUE(E)R" builds a bridge across time. It is memory; it breaks traditions, opens new ways and makes waves.
The colour pink of Der Rosa Platz reminds of the "Rosa Winkel" (pink triangle), it reminds of the people who were persecuted and murdered because of their sexual orientation during the Nazi period.
"QUE(E)R" is an open place for an open-minded society. Der Rosa Platz is a place to meet, a site of contemplation.
"QUE(E)R" is a water sculpture, a design with identity. In this place, at Der Rosa Platz, the borders become blurred: Who is "different"? Those who balance on the letters "QUE(E)R"?
Those wading through the pink water? Or is it the outside observers? Like a "red" carpet, "QUE(E)R" leads to the Inner City which, at the same time, is reflected on its surface.
This temporary reproduction of the city gets overlapped by reflections of the passersby and invites them to stay, to watch and to remember.
The installation has been designed by the Austrian artist Hans Kupelwieser, but as for 2013 it has not yet been executed.
|May 27, 2008 - Berlin - Tiergarten|
|Berlin, the city's memorial for gay Holocaust victims. The structure, set up near the larger Holocaust memorial, includes a video loop showing two men kissing and this message, "A simple kiss could land you in trouble."
Berlin mayor Klaus Wowereit, who is openly gay, hailed the grey, concrete memorial as a long overdue acknowledgement of the repression of homosexuals.
"The monument consecrated today is a reminder to us of the horrors of the past and draws our attention to the degree of discrimination that currently exists," Wowereit said.
"Great efforts will still need to be undertaken before the sight of two men or women kissing here or in Moscow or elsewhere on the planet is accepted by society in general."
The stone is 4 metres tall. The monument to the persecuted homosexuals is devoid of ornamentation, partly to deter vandalism and partly as a reference to the hundreds of plain, tomb-style stones making up the sprawling nearby Holocaust memorial.
The separate monument for homosexuals was ordered in 2003 by Germany's Bundestag parliament after lengthy debate over whether to commemorate all victims of the Nazis with one monument or separately.
The new monument, designed by Danish-born Michael Elmgreen and Norwegian Ingar Dragset, contains a window that invites the visitor to look inside and see a film of a homosexual couple kissing. The image is to be changed between two men and two women every two years. A text on the monument describes the Nazi persecution.
Current research suggests 54,000 men and women were convicted of homosexual acts and about 7,000 killed in the camps. The dictatorship attempted to wipe out all dissent and any behaviour which did not serve the Nazi ideology.
Sadly, no survivors made the event. The last known, out gay survivor of the Holocaust, Pierre Seel, died in 2005.
|2010 - Natzweiler-Struthof, Bas-Rhin - France|
|Natzweiler-Struthof was a German concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km south west from the city of Strasbourg.
Natzweiler-Struthof was the only concentration camp established by the Nazis on present-day French territory, though there were French-run temporary camps such as the one at Drancy. At the time, the Alsace-Lorraine area in which it was established was administered by Germany as an integral part of the German Reich.
This plaque in memory of the deported for homosexuality was unveiled 25 September in the former concentration camp Natzweiler-Struthof (Bas-Rhin) in the presence of probable last survivor of the "pink triangles", Rudolf Brazda.
The plaque reads: "To the memory of victims of Nazi barbarism, deported on grounds of homosexuality" .
|2011 - Spain - Barcellona|
On Sunday morning, March 20, 2011 Mayor Jordi Hereu of Barcelona dedicated a granite triangle framed in pink in the city's central Ciutadella Park. The location was a compromise after the Roman Catholic church raised a ruckus over the proposed installation of the memorial in the immediate vicinity of Antoní Gaudi's famed Basilica of the Sagrada Familia, which is also the city's number one tourist attraction.
The inscription reads "En memoria de los gays, las lesbianas y las personas transexuales que han sufrido persecución y represión a lo largo de la historia. Barcelona 2001" ("In memory of the gays, lesbians and transsexual people who have suffered persecution and repression throughout history. Barcelona 2011.")
|France - Saint Malo|
We don't have data about this Memorial. If you have, please send us an e-mail. Thank you.
|Tel Aviv - Meir Garden|
|A monument honoring the homosexual men and women who were persecuted due to their sexual orientation and perished during the Holocaust is to be established in Meir Garden in Tel Aviv, according to Tel Aviv Mayor Ron Huldai.
The monument is to be the first in Israel to commemorate these victims, though four of its kind exist worldwide, in Sydney, Copenhagen, Berlin, and Amsterdam. It has been designed as an iron triangle, on which the victims' names are to be inscribed.
A quarter of a million homosexuals were persecuted during the Holocaust, and tens of thousands were murdered because the Nazi Party believed their sexual preference to be deviant. In the concentration camps in which they were imprisoned, gay men were forced to wear a pink triangle while lesbian women wore a black patch.
August 21, 2013, was projected Israel's first monument to gay victims of the Holocaust to be built in Meir Garden. Scheduled to be completed this year in the seaside city of Tel Aviv, Israeli daily newspaper Haaretz reports: At the center of the monument will be a concrete triangle containing a pink triangle, the symbol used by the Nazis used to mark homosexuals. A bench and plaque beside the monument will give information about the persecution of homosexuals during the Holocaust
Fimally, on January 10, 2014, was unveiled the first memorial to gay Holocaust victims in Tel Aviv, in a ceremony attended by Germany's ambassador, Andreas Michaelis. The monument in the centre of the city is designed around a pink triangle - the symbol gay prisoners were forced to wear in the concentration camps. It features inscriptions in German, Hebrew and English.
Israel is widely seen as having liberal gay rights policies, despite the hostility shown towards homosexuals, particularly men, from the ultra-orthodox Jewish community.
Former Tel Aviv council member Eran Lev, who initiated the monument, said the idea behind it was "to commemorate those victims of the Nazi regime in a universal way; namely, not only Jews but all individuals."
|Canada - Manitoba - Winnipeg|
The Holocaust memorial on the lawn of the Manitoba Legislative Building in Winnipeg, although chiefly commemorating the genocide of Jews, makes reference to those killed for their sexual orientation.
|U.S.A. - New York City - Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn|
The NYC Holocaust Memorial Park was created under the Koch Administration. The original plan, which was developed by Parks Department employee George Vellanokis, included stone markers for the Other Victims of the Nazi era. The plans were submitted and approved by the Arts Commission before the Park was even built. But due to political pressure these stone markers were never inscribed. It should be noted that this a New York City owned park, under the jurisdiction of the Department of Parks's Commissioner and the Mayor. It is maintained by the Parks Department and is not privately owned by the Holocaust Committee.
The Holocaust Memorial Committee has a Memorandum of Understanding with the limited scope to approve names and text for future stones. Starting in the 1990's the Lesbian and Gay Children of Holocaust Survivors began applying to the local Holocaust Committee to have these markers inscribed. Each year for over a decade the request was denied, usually without any explanation. After the Committee denied the application again around 2008-9, we asked the City for an appeals process.
A Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel of notable members from Holocaust related museums was created to ensure that the decisions from the Committee were not being arbitrary, unreasonable or capricious. The final decision-making power always remained with the Parks Commissioner and Mayor and the laws of New York; and not the local community group.
In 2010, the last request was approved and the Permit for the inscriptions was granted, and then demonstrations were conducted by a segment of the Orthodox Community in opposition to these stone markers. Our desire was not to have a political fight, so we quietly proceeded while trying to explain our educational and memorial goal. A meeting was even held with one of the more outspoken political figures in the opposition.
The inscriptions were cut in stone on July 25, 2012 and we received an email from Mayor Koch congratulating us. An intimate Unveiling Ceremony was conducted on May 5, 2013, where representatives of each stone marker were there to unveil the stones. Scroll down to see more about the Unveiling.
|Spain - Sitges - October 11, 2006|
Gay campaigners in Sitges, Spain, have welcomed a new monument against homophobia.
The 4ft pink triangle overlooks the sea from the fourth pier of the popular Catalan gay resort.
Politicians erected the structure as a symbol of its stance against homophobia.
It commemorates a demonstration 10 years ago when police announced they would start making records of gay men wondering the beach at night.
Gay activists opposed the plan but were target by protesters throwing eggs and stones..
The monument has an inscription proclaiming, "Sitges against Homophobia. October 1996-2006. Never again."
|Italy - Turin - January 27, 2013|
On the occasion of the commemoration of Holocaust victims, in Turin, at the Museum of the Resistance in corso Valdocco 4/a, was inaugurates the Pink Bench, a gift to the city by the artist Corrado Levi.
The work was designed by the artist in memory of the homosexual victims of Nazi . It is just a pink bench, triangular, in the center of which is placed a balloon, also pink.
Deeply evocative and gently poetic at once, the work is a testimony and a tribute of particular interest from the point of view of art.
|Illinois - Elwood - May 25, 2016|
2016 Monument to honor LGBT veterans in national cemetery in Illinois.
The first federally approved monument honoring lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender ( LGBT ) veterans was dedicated in the Memorial Day, Monday, May 25, 2016 at the Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery in Elwood, Illinois, one hour southwest of Chicago.
The monument consist of a black granite center block holding a pink granite triangle, centered in a pink granite wall displaying, in bronze, the service seals of the Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and Merchant Marines.
It will read: "Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people have served honorably and admirably in America's armed forces. In their memory and appreciation of their selfless service and sacrifice, this monument was dedicated by Chicago Chapter American Veterans for Equal Rights."
|2016 Puerto Rico's first LGBT-specific monument|
June 26, 2016, formally unveiled the monument - which is located in San Juan's oceanfront Third Millennium Park - during the city's annual Pride parade.
The unveiling ceremony took place two weeks after 49 people were killed inside the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Fla. Nearly half of the massacre's victims were LGBT Puerto Ricans. The monument contains a plaque that pays tribute to the 49 people who died inside the Pulse nightclub.
This vibrant memorial is particularly resonating for the US territory because out of the 49 victims killed in Orlando, 23 were Puerto Rican. A plaque at the base of the monument highlights the names of Puerto Rican victims, with the other 26 victims also listed below.
The monument was unveiled during San Juan's Pride celebration, where Mayor Carmen Yulín said: "Today, we celebrate life. We must work together to eradicate discrimination and homophobia". And she added: "We must raise our voice for justice, and the equality of each of us who are human. We must aspire to have a country where everyone is equal, and no one is judged for who they love."
Puerto Rico unveiled its first LGBT monument, which proclaims "Love is love, is love, is love..." The monument is made up of seven rectangular columns in the colours of the rainbow.
The monument's dedication took place almost exactly one year after Puerto Rico adopted marriage equality.
(Gay Museum), Mehringdamm 61, 10961 Berlin, Germany - Tel: +49 30 693 1172
|United States Holocaust Memorial Museum|
100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW, Washington, DC 20024-2150; tel. 202-488-6144.
(A tile from the Wall of Remembrance at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.)
Gedenkstätte Sachsenhausen, Straße der Nationen 22, 16515 Oranienburg, Germany - Tel: +49 3301 810912.
History Repeats ItselfHistory Repeats Itself
If tolerance for difference is one of the lessons humanity is supposed to have learned from the Nazi era, the contemporary treatment of homosexuals around the world demonstrates that the lesson has not yet been learned. The need to defend and advance the human rights of homosexuals did not end with the defeat of the Nazi regime. Indeed, according to the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, 87 countries currently maintain laws that prohibit or regulate sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex. These laws are extremely broad in their scope and lend themselves to ideological interpretations which often serve as a pretext for the persecution of homosexuals. Such laws might, for example, outlaw "unnatural" or "indecent" sexual acts so that under their aegis the police or others sanctioned by the state can actively persecute homosexuals or gender minorities.
Still other states maintain morality laws against so-called anti-social or immoral behavior, in which arrest is justified by extremely vague terms such as "causing a public scandal" or "hooliganism." These laws are widely used by the police to arrest and harass homosexual men and women. Examples of such jurisdictions include Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, and several states within the United States. The United Kingdom prohibited the "promotion" of homosexuality. Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government brought in that law in 1988, but the law were repealed by Tony Blair's Labour government - in 2000 in Scotland, and in 2003 in the rest of the UK, so now no such law exists.
A survey of international public policies alone, however, does not convey the urgency of human rights education for sexual and gender minorities. According to a recent report by Amnesty International, homosexuals in many parts of the world still are subjected to the some of the same forms of torture, forced medical treatment, and arbitrary arrest that were perpetrated against homosexuals during the twelve years of the Nazi regime. In various countries around the world, homosexuals still are denied - solely on the basis of their sexual orientation - their basic rights to freedom of assembly, freedom of association, and freedom of speech. The horrifying reality is that Afghanistan, the Arab Republic of Yemen, and Iran each maintain that homosexual acts are a capital offense, and executions of people convicted of homosexuality have taken place in 1980, 1995, and 1992.
Clearly, in different places throughout our contemporary world, much of the same discrimination and even some of the same crimes that occurred during under the Nazi regime are currently being perpetrated against homosexual people. Just look at out "Memorial Hall" in this site! The past is not past, and history is repeating itself virtually every day. This is because the lessons of the Nazi persecution of homosexuals have not yet been taught or learned. We believe that one of the best ways to commemorate and historically legitimize those who were murdered by the Nazis is to prevent such atrocities from occurring again throughout the world. This is why our proposal for a cy pres allocation works both to educate future generations about the crimes perpetrated against homosexuals under the Nazi regime and to prevent crimes of the same sort from happening again.
We choose the "pink triangle" as our symbol: let's not forget the reason:
Remember Gay victims and do so that
THIS WILL HAPPEN NEVER AGAIN!